Hello, my siblings in Christ, and welcome to another video that… I have made. Today, we will focus on the differences between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. Since all the differences have a lot of exceptions, I will focus on the dominant practices of each Church. In addition, I will ignore the historical context for most of these as it would take too much time. Let us begin. The Catholics don’t have beards, the Orthodox have beards; not only that, they’re all beard, and it is one of our goals as an Orthodox Christian to become one with the Beard, to achieve the hypostatic union. This is illustrated nicely with this image of a Catholic bishop and an Orthodox abbess. Catholics believe that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son; this is called the ‘filioque’ clause, meaning ‘and from the Son,’ a clause that was gradually added to the Nicene Creed in the West; the Orthodox believe that the Spirit proceeds from the Father alone. The Orthodox make a distinction between God’s essence and His energies; God’s essence will always be unknown to us, whereas we interact with Him through His energies; however, both His essence and His energies are uncreated. Catholics make no distinction as regards to essence and energies. Catholics believe that the Pope has the supreme authority over the entire Church, whereas, in the Orthodox Church, all bishops have the same authority that only differs in honor due to different bishoprics. Catholics believe that the Pope is infallible when he defines a doctrine on faith and morals that is upheld by the whole Church – something that is a good thing when the pope is good and a very bad thing when the pope isn’t good. The Orthodox have no concept of papal infallibility. For Catholics, the Assumption of Mary is a dogma; the Assumption isn’t a dogma in the Orthodox Church, but everyone believes in it. Catholics believe that Mary was born without the original sin, a dogma that they call ‘Immaculate Conception’; Orthodox have no such belief. Catholics use unleavened bread for Mass, Orthodox use leavened bread for the Liturgy. Catholics believe that transubstantiation of the gifts occurs at the Words of Institution; Orthodox believe that we cannot truly pinpoint the moment of the change, but consider the epiclesis, that is, the invocation of the Holy Spirit upon the gifts, as the pinnacle of the Divine Liturgy. Catholics can use hosts consecrated during previous Mass for communion during the Mass that’s currently celebrated; Orthodox always take communion that’s consecrated on that Liturgy. Catholics require their members to reach the age of reason to receive Communion; all baptized members of the Orthodox Church, even babies, can receive Communion. Catholics have a very developed devotional system around the Eucharistic adoration, that is, worshipping the consecrated host outside of Mass; no similar services or devotions exist in the Orthodox Church. The Catholics generally baptize with pouring; triple immersion is preferred method in the Orthodox Church. The Holy Mystery of Chrismation is performed immediately after baptism in the Orthodox Church, even with toddlers; in the Catholic Church, one must attain the age of reason in order to receive the sacrament of Confirmation. The Sacrament of Unction is generally given to seriously ill in the Catholic Church; in the Orthodox Church, it can be given to anyone. Most of Catholics make the sign of the cross with all five fingers, from left to right; Orthodox make the sign of the cross with three fingers joined and two fingers folded, from right to left. The typical devotional device of the Orthodox is a prayer rope where they pray the Jesus prayer; for the Catholics, it’s a rosary upon which, mostly, Our Father and Hail Mary are said. Catholics use icons, images and statues in their worship, whereas Orthodox use only icons and squint with suspicion at more realistic imagery. Catholic priests are miserable for having to be celibate and Orthodox priests are miserable for having to be married, unless they’re monks – then they’re miserable like the Catholics. Catholics don’t allow divorce unless they call it an annulment; Orthodox don’t allow divorce and then they do. Catholics make a distinction between mortal and venial sins; such a difference is generally absent in the Orthodox Church. Catholics believe in the Purgatory, where we endure punishments due to forgiven sins; these can be alleviated by indulgences, specific acts of piety that are meant to reduce one’s time in Purgatory. In Orthodoxy, prayer does help the dead have their sins forgiven, but they’re not purged passively of anything, and Orthodox have no concept of residual punishment or related indulgences. A lot of Orthodox believe in tollhouses, which is like Purgatory, just much worse. Catholics have a lot of different monastic orders with different goals; Orthodox monasticism is usually of the same mold. Catholics traditionally abstain from meat on Fridays; Orthodox are borderline vegan more than half a year. The Catholics use the Gregorian calendar; the Orthodox use either Revised Julian Calendar (similar to the Gregorian calendar) or the old Julian calendar. Traditionally, the Catholics make their services incomprehensible using Latin; Orthodox, traditionally, make use of specialized local languages to make their services incomprehensible to general public, like Koine Greek, Church Slavonics etc. Catholic priests can serve facing the altar or facing the people, depending on the order of the service they use; Orthodox priests always face the altar. The Dating of Easter and all related feasts is different for Catholics and Orthodox; sometimes they align, most of the time they don’t. Catholics use music in their worship, traditionally an organ; Orthodox usually see instruments as distracting during worship, so we don’t use instruments and distract you by being constantly lost in different kontakia, troparia, irmoi and other words you don’t know. Catholic churches often have pews; the Orthodox know that the participation in the Liturgy is best achieved not by passive observing of a spectacle, but by searing leg pain. Catholics wear lace, Orthodox do not. This is the biggest difference between the two Churches and a serious impediment to an honest ecumenical dialogue. I hope you’ve enjoyed this video; remember to subscribe if you haven’t already. Also, you should check the playlists in the channel page. There you’ll find all the series and all the books of the Bible neatly arranged so you could listen to it more easily and so you could see all the episodes you have missed. Bye!